Basic Computer Knowledge PDF Download (A To Z Knowledge Notes)

Basic Computer Fundamentals Notes PDF for all Exams



Basic Computer Knowledge PDF

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Computer knowledge in Hindi

Today it has become necessary everywhere to have general knowledge about computers. Computers are all around us, and they play an important role in our lives. Therefore, read here for information about all computer-related subjects.

What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic device that performs mathematical and non-mathematical operations. It takes data as input, processes it and gives meaningful results as output. We collect raw facts in the form of data and these data are fed into the computer. The computer provides information to us by processing these data.

Often people think that the computer is like an almighty Superman but it is not so. It is just an automatic electronic machine that works fast and does not make mistakes. Its capacity is limited. It is derived from the English word compute which means to calculate. In Hindi, it is called computer. It is used to process and collect a lot of information.

A computer cannot do its work alone. The computer takes the help of many types of devices and programs to do any work. These computer tools and programs are known as ‘Hardware and Software’ respectively.

Computer Software: Software is a series of instructions written in a programming language, according to which the given data is processed. A computer cannot do any work without software. Its primary purpose is to convert data into information. Hardware also works according to the instructions of the software. It is also called a program. Establishing communication between hardware and software is called an interface.

All software is protected and restricted through licenses. A software license is a legal agreement between the creator of the software and the user, under which it is prohibited to install the software on more than one computer, make any kind of modification in the code and make any kind of change in the software. It restricts the use of the software.

What is memory: Memory is the basic component of a computer. This is the internal storage area of the computer. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) requires input data and instructions to process, which are stored in memory. Instructions are stored and processed in the memory itself, and output is received. Therefore memory is an essential part of the computer.

Memory is divided into many cells which are called locations. Each location has a separate label called an address.

There are two types of memory:

Primary Memory :

Primary memory is often also called main memory, which resides inside the computer and its data and instructions are used rapidly and directly by the CPU.

Secondary Memory :

It is also called auxiliary and banking storage memory. Since main memory is temporary and has limited capacity, secondary memory is used as permanent data memory in large quantities. Mostly it is used for data backup. Data that is not currently needed by the CPU is stored in secondary memory.

What is a Database? In computers, we can store data in different ways, such as in the form of documents, worksheets or in the form of program files and when we ) and store data in the form of columns, then it is called tabular data. If one or more tables are stored as a file then it is called a database.

In this way, a database is a group of information that is organized in such a way that all the information present in it can be easily changed when needed, and the information can be easily used and managed. Can be done easily.

Before understanding the database, it is important to know what data is. Data is a small part of any information. It can be any fact related to a person, thing or place.

Your name, your age, height, weight, mobile number etc. are some of the data related to you. Data can be in many different formats like text, numbers, images, files etc. When this data is processed in a particular form, it becomes information.

What are computer languages- Human beings need language to communicate with each other. Language is a means of communication. In the same way, to interact with the computer, we must have knowledge of computer languages. There are many types of computer languages that have their own symbols, characters and usage rules that help humans interact with the computer.

  • Machine Language: – Machine language is the language in which only two digits 0 and 1 are used, it is the basic language of the computer, which the computer understands directly, the machine language is written in binary code. Which has only two digits 0 and 1, since the computer only understands binary signals i.e. 0 and 1 and the circuit of the computer recognizes these binary codes and converts them into electrical signals. In this, 0 means low or Off and 1 means High or On.
  • Assembly Language: – Assembly language is a computer programming language in which letters or symbols are used instead of digital symbols, hence assembly language is also called symbol language. Assembly language is a low-level language, assembly language is the second generation of programming language.

What is CPU- The full name of the CPU is the Central Processing Unit. It is also called a processor or microprocessor. It controls various devices connected to the PC. It analyzes the information received by the computer. It is an electronic microchip that processes data by converting it into information. It is called the brain of the computer. It controls all the functions of the computer system and it converts input into output. It forms a complete computer system consisting of input and output units.

It has the following parts:-

Arithmetic Logic Unit:-

It is used in arithmetic and logical calculations. Under arithmetic calculations, comparative calculations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, etc., and under logical calculations, comparative calculations like (<, > or =), yes or no, etc.

Control Unit:-

It controls all the functions of the computer and coordinates all the activities of all the parts of the computer like input, output devices, processor etc.

Memory Unit:-

It is used to store data and instructions. It is mainly divided into two categories: primary and secondary memory. When the computer remains operational, that is, the currently used data and instructions are stored in the primary memory. Secondary memory is used to store data and instructions to be used later.

What is a computer virus?

A virus is a program that gets loaded into our computer system without our knowledge and desire. A virus can replicate itself over and over again and use up all available memory, slowing or completely halting system performance. Some virus attaches itself to the booting of the computer and every time the computer boots, it spreads as much or reboots the computer. He damages the data or program of the computer. Internet and unsolicited e-mails are the common way of virus entering our computer.

There are different types of computer viruses:

  • Boot Sector Virus
  • Parasitic Virus
  • Multipartite Virus
  • Link Virus
  • Macro Virus

Programs or software designed to destroy viruses are called antiviruses. It has the facility of Auto Protect and Real Time Protection, which before using any file from the Internet, checks whether it is virus-free or not. If still the virus becomes active in the system, inform us. Which we can remove by running a system scan of the antivirus. By running a full system scan at some time interval we may be able to keep the computer virus-free. The first personal computer virus to appear is C-Brain.

Following are some computer viruses:

  • C-Brain
  • Monkey
  • Vanhalf
  • Michelangelo
  • Creeper
  • Happy Birthday Joshi


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